Veda is considered to be the source from which Indian music has originated. It
is said in the Chandogya Upanishad that:
RIK TATSAAMA ||
compilation of richas(shlokas ) is known as "Saama".
form the basis of Saam.
RIGRASAH RICHAH SAAMARASAH | SAAMNA UDVITHO RASAH ||
beauty of speech lies in the 'Richas', the beauty of richas lie in the 'Saama'
and the beauty of the 'Saama' lies in the individual's capability to sing it.
The richas of Saamaveda are sung in a typical style- the pitch is kept high initially and it is lowered in a gradual manner. The richas of Saama veda when sung in a proper manner has soothing effects on the wavering mind.
None other than Yogeshwar Sri Krishna has eulogised the greatness of Samaveda in the following manner-VEDAANAMA SAAMAVEDO ASMI meaning " Amongst Vedas,I am the Saamaveda."(GEETA 10/22)
Saamaveda comprises of two main parts
(i) Purvarchik (2) Uttararchik
The middle portion is called 'Mahaanaam-nyaarchik',which itself comprises of 10 incantations
Purvarchik itself is sub-divided into 4 sections - Aagneya, Endra,Paavmaan and Aaranya.
The distribution of mantras in each skanda (section ) is as follows -
There are 21 chapters in the Uttararchik which contain 1225 mantras. All together there are 1875 mantras in the Samaveda.
Initially, the Saamveda had thousands of singing styles, each distinct from the other and most of which became extinct with the passage of time. At present there are few scholars who could recite the richas of Saamveda in the traditionally approved way. Such blessed scholars can still be found in south India,especially in and around Mysore.These scholars mainly come from 3 different schools now famous as Raanaayani,Kauthumi and Jaiminiya.
There are some scholars who are of the belief that most of the richas of Samaveda are in fact extracts from the Rigveda with few exceptions. However,It is worth noticing here that the recitation styles of both Samaveda and Rigveda are distinct. Vedic sanskrit being a complex language, its meaning and context are susceptible to misinterpretation, particularly if we try to understand it with the help of modern sanskit grammer, which has undergone a sea change from vedic times.
In importance, Brahmanas come second only to the Vedas. Amongst the Samvedic Brahmana texts, 'Taandava' and 'Saama-vidhana' are prominent. Taandava Brahmana consists of 25 chapters and hence it is also famously known as 'Panchvisha Brahmana'. It is also called 'Adbhut-Brahmana' because it contains divine thoughts which human mind has ever been able to perceive. Some other Brahmanas related with Samaveda are 'Aarsheya', 'Vansh' and 'Samhitopanishad-Brahmana', etc.
Aaranyaka texts are mainly the extracts of the Upanishads. The Aranyaka of Samveda comes under 'Saama-samhita', which is also known as Chhandogya-Aranyak because of the fact that its beautifully metrical richas are sung by Saam-vedi scholars. Amongst the Saamvedic upanishads, the 'Chhandogya-Upanishad' and 'Kenopinshad' are famous. Scholars are of the view that 'Brahmanas', 'Aranyakas' and 'Upanishads' symbolize the 3 'ashramas' of life,Grihastha(householders),Vanprastha(going to the forest) and Sanyasa(Total renunciation).
As it has been already said earlier, the richas of Samaveda being metrical,hence they can be sung. At the time of 'havan', deities are invoked with these mantras. There are specific mantra for the invocation of each vedic deity. The use of all the 7 musical notes adds to the mesmerising effects of the richas of Saamaveda. As mentioned earlier. Indian music owes its origin to Saamveda. Saam Veda holds special significance with respect to the evolution and growth of Indian music. One gets divine peace while listening to the incantations of Saama-Veda.
ONE : PURVARCHIK
AGNIR VRITTRAANI JANGHANAD |
destroys the demons (vritras).
Agni implies Knowledge whereas Vritta 'darkness of ignorance'. Just as Agni its destroys the darkness, in the same manner we should use 'the fire of knowledge' for the destruction of Kaam(lust), Krodh(anger), Moha(attachments) and Ahamkaar(arrogance)-the five inherent enemies of man. The fire of knowledge is capable of destroying these enemies. Ignorance (darkness) can be destroyed by knowledge of self.
AGNE ! NAH DRISHE DEVAH HI ASI |
is the deity, who shows us the (right) path.
This self explanatory richa eulogises Agni for his capability to annihilate darkness. As soon as there is light, darkness vanishes and as a result the surroundings become clearly visible. It shows us the right path when it is dark. So, quite rightly Agni has been referred to as the destroyer of darkness and the torch bearer of human beings.
NAH RAYIM VANSATE |
blesses us with wealth.
Fire was perhaps one of the first natural sources of energy which became evident to primitive man. Quite naturally, he was mesmerized by its power which was both constructive as well as destructive. Man has been exploiting this energy to his advantage since time immemorial. Had it not been for this natural source of energy, all the progress mankind has witnessed would never have been possible. Not a single factory could run without it. Hence, man's awe of Agni is quite understandable and this was the reason it has been rightly eulogised as the giver of wealth.
HEY AGNEY ! MRID, MAHAN ASI |
Agni, Thou are great ! Thou are the giver of happiness !
All of us are aware of the multiple uses of Agni. This is why it has been referred to as great and the giver of happiness.
AGNEY ! VISHPATIH RAKSHASAH TAPAANAH |
is the protector of the people and the destroyer of demons!
Man has been using fire for constructive purposes since time immemorial. He used it to cook food. Hence, this richa quite aptly proclaims that it has helped mankind to sustain itself. Similarly, Agni is capable of causing destruction of high magnitude if it went out of control. The judicious use of Agni can lead to progress and prosperity whereas its abuse shall lead to sheer destruction and ruin.
HEY AGNEY| SAVITA DEVAHA NA URDHVAHA VAJASYA SANITA |
Agni ! May you rise high like 'Suryadev' and be our provider!
Once again Agni has been eulogised for sustaining mankind. The crops that grow in fields ,the fruits that the tree yields are because of sunlight which contains heat-the basic element present in fire. So, this richa is quite right in proclaiming that Agni is our provider.
AGNIH SUVIRYASYA SAUBHAAGASYA ISHE |
is the lord of noble valiance and good fortune!
Agni is the one, who bestows all material happiness, destroys all darkness and is the eternal source of energy. When we use this natural power for constructive purposes, mankind is benefitted in numerous ways. It blesses us with health, wealth and prosperity.
HAVISHAA AA JUHOT, MARJAYADHWAM |
'havan' with appropriate 'havishya'! May purity prevails everywhere!
'Havan' is an integral part of a yagya ceremony. During the yagya, ghee, aromatic herbs, shrubs are offered to the fire. In vedic times it was believed that the performance of havan helped in making the environment pure. Therefore, this richa exhorts us to perform yagya always by making appropriate offerings into the 'yagya kunda' so that the atmosphere becomes pure.
BRAHMA DWISHAH AVAJAHI |
Destroy 'people of
hatred' with the help of knowledge.
Light symbolizes knowledge. A person, whose heart is full of enmity and hatred losses all sense of discrimination and also the ability to differentiate between good and evil. But, as soon as 'Light of knowledge' illuminates his being, all the negative qualities present in him vanishes instantaneously.
UGRAM VACHAH APAAVADHIH |
Do not speak harsh
We should always be soft spoken because people like the company of a sweet-tongued man. It is a sin to hurt the sentiments of others. Nobody likes a person who speaks harsh words. Our words exhibit our nature, the type of person we are and the way we think.
AHAH AHAH SHUNDHYUH PARIPADAAM |
One, who maintains
cleanliness keeps away diseases.
People, who keep themselves and their surroundings clean seldom fall sick. Therefore, it has been said that cleanliness is next to Godliness. A man's growth and progress will be hindered if he does not have a pure-mind and a clean body.
AVRATAH NAH HINOTI |
One who does not observe
'vrata' can never accomplish anything.
Here, by 'vrata' it implies austerities. Anybody who is desirous of accomplishing any task has to first take a resolution and then act accordingly and in a planned manner. The person without a firm resolve can never succeed and will inevitably be a failure. On the contrary, a 'karma-yogi' who takes a resolve and work accordingly, without bothering about 'success' or 'failure', will eventually reach his goal.
VICHARSHANIH VISHWAAH MRIDHAH ABHYAKRAMIT |
A scholar with
exceptional knowledge is successful in vanquishing all his enemies.
One, who is considered a scholar even by scholars themselves is worthy of being a called a man of exceptional knowledge. An exceptionally knowledgeable person with his deep knowledge of wide ranging subjects has the capability to provide solutions to almost every problem. He has the intelligence required to understand the basic nature of the problem and then work accordingly towards finding it's solution. He always gives right advice to the right people at the right time.
SUKRITYAA MAHAAN ABHYA VARDHATHAH |
Virtuous deeds make you
A person attains greatness by his good deeds. He works for the welfare of the society. Quite naturally, such a man becomes famous and receives honour and respect from people.
VICHARSHANIH HITAH SA CHETATI |
An ideal scholar is one, who propagates knowledge selflessly and without any discrimination. He works for the welfare of the society and for the benefit of one and all. By propagating knowledge thus, he clears the darkness of ignorance and as a result the society treads on the path of peace, progress and prosperity.
RATNADHAAH VAARYAANI DAYATE |
One, who wears gems
Gems being precious just cannot be possessed by all and sundry. Only those people, who have wealth can dream of acquiring gems and precious stones. This particular richa stresses on the importance of acquiring and saving wealth for its usefulness not only in normal times but also during times of crisis. Therefore, one should save money so that his future is secured and he does not have to worry at the time of need. One, who does not this will always be on the mercy of others.
MA TE RASASYA MATSAT DWAYAAWINAH |
People of double
standards never experience happiness.
Happiness and joy always eludes a hypocrite. If our actions do not match our words then there are bound to be conflicts within. That will naturally disturb our mental poise. As a result we will be tensed and angry.Therefore, we should avoid this at all cost so that our life becomes full of happiness and joy.
ATAPTA TATURNA TADAAMO ASHNUTE |
Nothing can be achieved
without enduring the 'fire of tapa'.
A man, who is constantly engaged in action and works hard until he has achieved his goal undergoes lots of metamorphosis and positive change which helps in his self improvement. He learns from his mistakes thereby minimising the chances of committing future errors. In this manner he becomes more disciplined, patient and diligent. As a result of his diligence he gets added benefits such as peace of mind, happiness and success.
YAH MAAM DADATI SA AAVAT |
The provider of food
protects one and all.
Providing food to needy helps in their survival. This is the reason why it is called 'Mahadaan'or the greatest donation. This richa means to say that hoarding food grains when there are people dying of hunger, is a sin and one should never do that. Donating food to the hungry brings unfathomable virtues to a man.
Similarly, scholars working for the propagation of knowledge also do a great service to mankind. Knowledge helps us not only to improve our selves but also to earn our livelihoods. There is a saying that 'knowledge' is the only wealth which increases even after it is given to others.
ANNAM ADANTAM AHAM ANNAM ADMI |
One, who is not a
provider of food, I (God) destroy his food.
One, who hoardes food more than his requirement and does not provide to the hungry, commits a crime against humanity. God snatches the means of livelihood of such a selfish person.
MAAYAAVINO MAMIRE ASYA MAAYAYAA |
Knowledge propagated by
scholars helps even the lowest category of ignorant ones to attain supremacy.
This beautiful richa sings the glory of knowledge. Knowledge removes the darkness of ignorance and thus helps even the most ignorant man to become knowledgeable. The effulgence of knowledge shows the right path to a man and leads him to the path of progress.
AMRITAAYA AAPYAAYA MAANAH DIVI UTTAMAANI SHRAVAANSI DHISHWA |
salvation,tread on the path of progress and be a man of good repute.
Every individual desires to be free from the bondanges of matarial life. All the spiritual knowledge propagated by the men of enightenment were in fact efforts made in this direction only-as to how a man can become free from sorrows, attachments, anger,lust,etc. Rituals that are performed with the desire of attaining salvation also helps a man to achieve growth and progress in this world. Peroformance of religious rites and rituals give him happiness, peace and deep sense of spiritual satisfaction. His mind being pre-occupied with virtuous deeds does'nt have time to falter and think evil. Means that are adopted for the attainment of salvation also help us prosper and grow in the material world. This, as a result gives us happiness and joy.
TVAM JYOTISHAA VI TAMO VAVARTHA |
You destroy darkness by
The light of knowledge is fully capable of destroying the darkness of ignorance. This also help us in overcoming all the difficulties and in achieving success in all our endeavors.
ABHUBH DADRAA NIVESHANEE VISHWASYA JAGATO RAATRI |
Night,the provider of
rest and relaxation, is propitious.
After a hard day's of work,the night gives us an opportunity to take rest and relax. Thus, our batteries are re-charged and we are ready for the challenges of the next day. This beautiful richa praises the glory of night in a simple yet effective way. It also describes the importance of night for giving an opportunity to a man to take rest.
VAISHVAA NARAAYA MATIR NAVYASE SHUCHIH |
Agni dev's intellect is
pure and benedictory.
Agni was one of the chief vedic deities. When the early man first encountered this natural source of energy, he was mesmerised by its power, both constructive as well as destructive.One the one hand, where he was captivated by it's constructive powers he was also scarred of it's destructive capabilities. This beautiful richa is a beautiful expressions to his feelings. It exhorts us to emulate the qualities of Agni and work selflessly for the betterment of society.One, who works selflessly for the welfare of society earns respect and honour. He becomes popular by the virtues of his benevolent and generous deeds. This beautiful richa exhorts us not to live only for oneself but for others too. If this becomes the norm then sorrows and unhappiness would disappear from the face of earth and everywhere peace, progress and prosperity will prevail. But for Agni, the very existence of man would have been at stake. Therefore, taking a leaf from Agni, we should act for the welfare of society.
MAA VO VACHAANSIH PARI CHAKSHYAANI VOCHAM |
O Deities! May I never
speak that which is against your dignity.
We should always refrain from speaking harsh words that inflict pain. Our speech should be such that it gives joy to others. Just as an arrow once released from the bow can not return,in the same manner painful and harsh words can not be taken back. Physical injury heals but insults caused by harsh words keeps haunting man for a long time to come. A man of sweet speech and manners is loved by one and all. Such a man never lacks co-operation and help as everybody is willing to lend him a helping hand at the time of his need.
YASHO MAA PARATI MUCHYATAAM |
May 'fame' never abandon
This can happen only if a man takes out some time from his schedule and devotes to charitable works. Everybody lives for himself but one who lives for others is remebered for his good deeds. People always give respect and honour to such a man. God bless him with success and good fortune.
EESHE HI SHAKRAH |
A man of self-control
becomes the master.
The person who has his senses under control is capable of accomplishing unimaginable feats. One, who has mastered himself can have the world under his control. Nothing is impossible for such a man. A man of self-control has all his energy focussed just as the scattered sunrays passing through a magnifying glass turn into a single ray. Therefore,every individual should strive to develop self-control so that his energy gets channelised, mind foucussed and his capabilities naturally gets improved significantly .One, who has controlled himself can control the whole world. Only he can become a master.
TWO : UTTARAARCHIKA
YAGYAH CHETANAH JIGAATI |
The yagya enkindles the
flames of consciousness in human's mind.
At the time of Yagya 'havan' is performed amidst the recital of Saamaveda. While the former gives peace to mind, the latter purifies the atmosphere. Both these things combinedly have tremendous effects in raising our consciousness to great spiritual heights and in facillitating the process of enlightenment.
SOMO JATRASYA CHETATI |
Soma enthuses in us the
enthusiasm to win.
The term 'Soma' finds frequent mention in the Vedas. It is very difficult to say what Soma exactly was but some scholars believe it was something which after consuming had intoxicating effects. It also was a tremendous energiser and vitaliser. It is mentioned that Lord Indra's favourite drink was the Soma Rasa.
Soma infuses energy in the whole body and improves blood circulation. As a result the body becomes energetic. It ushers enthusiasm and helps us to accomplish all our duties without getting tired.
RITASYA JIVHAA PAVATE MADHU |
A truthful person's
speech is as sweet as honey.
He is always soft spoken. He is never indignant and does not loose his temper. His mind is free from fear. He speaks softly and treats everybody with respect.
DEVAAH SWAPNAAYA NA SPRRIHYANTI |
Deities never favour the
lazy and indolent.
A lazy person can never achieve success. Nobody likes a person who spends his time sitting idle. Laziness erodes a person of his enthusiasm and energy. As a result the person loses all opportunities and finally becomes dejected and frustrated. The worst thing is that he stops believing in himself.
DEVAAH SUNVANTAM ICHCHHANTI |
Deities bless the
One can not achieve anything in life without hard work and perseverence. A person who is diligent and consistently engaged in good actions shall inevitably attain his goals and become successful in all his pursuits. So, it is in the best interest of a man to become a "Karma-Yogi" and work to the best of his abilities and without bothering about the results.
MAA KIM BRAHMADWISHAM VANAH |
Avoid the company of
those who abhor knowledge.
Those, who abhor knowledge always live in the darkness of ignorance. As the saying goes that a man is known by the company he keeps. Good company can make a man whereas bad company can ruin him. A raindrop coming in contact with fire looses it's existence while that falling on a shell becomes a 'pearl'. Therefore, people desirous of knowledge should avoid the company of ignorant people who believe in the motto-"ignorance is bliss".
MARTOH NA VASHTA TADDHACHAH |
Never listen to anything
that is evil.
One should neither speak nor listen to anything that is evil or bad. There is always a danger of him being lured by the sinful path because the way man acts depends totally upon the way he thinks. As are your thoughts so will be your actions. One should therefore refrain from listening to anything that is bad and negative lest his mind should not gets polluted.
ABHI VISHWAANI KAAVYAA |
Engage yourself in all
that is auspicious.
This particular richa describes the importance of good deeds. The outcome always depends upon the 'karma'. Auspicious deeds always yeild good results whereas sinful deeds fetch evil results. It has been rightly said "As you sow so you reap". One shall reap fruits on the basis off his deeds performed. Therefore it is imperative that one should necessarily abstain from bad actions.
DIVE DIVE VAAJAM SASNIH |
You fight a battle
Life has been compared with a battle and rightly so, as each day comes up with a new set of challenges which we must meet. One can just not shy away from the problems if he has to survive. He has to meet to challenges with courage.Success tastes sweet if it is earned after giving our best of efforts. Life devoid of struggles is a life bereft of happiness because the value of happiness is realized only after pain.
MO SHU BRAHMEVA TANDRAYURBHAVO |
Having realized the
truth, never become indolent.
An enlightened person should never be complacent and sit idle. If he does so then he confines his knowledge to himself which is a selfish attitude. He should try to propagate his knowledge among the masses rather. This way he will be providing opportunities for others to realize their real selfs. One should therefore first attain knowledge of the self and then work for the welfare of others. Lethargy leads to failure hence one should abhor it vehemently.
ADHAA HINVAANA INDRIYAM JYAAYO MAHITVA MAANASHE |
ABHISHTI KRIDVI CHARSHANIH ||
The scholar by his
specialized knowledge and by making best use of his 'energy' attains the
ultimate goal and supremacy.
Knowledge destroys ignorance. The scholar acquires all the means necessary to fulfill a particular task with the help of his knowledge and eventually becomes successful. Quite naturally, he is considered noble and great.
AGNINAAGNIH SAMIDHYATE |
Fire enkindles fire .
This richa compares knowoledge with fire because just as fire destroys darkness, in the same manner propagation of knowledge helps in destroying ignorance among masses. A 'karmayogi' can pass down his knowledge to a worthy person thereby creating an another 'karmagyogi'. In this way one is successful in enlightening the other. That is the reason why the company of scholars is preferred and is considered very auspicious. Knowledge breeds knowledge where as ignorance further increases the darkness of ignorance.
That is why not only we should ourselves engage in good deeds but also encourage others to do the same.
RITAAVRIDHO RITASPRISHAU BRIHANTAM KRATUM RITEN AASHAATHE |
The propagator of
truth...one who is always in touch with truth..accomplishes great deeds with the
help of truth.
Truth triumphs ultimately. It may be overshadowed by falsehood for sometime but ultimately it wins. The greatness of truth is unfathomable and it is mightier than anything in this world.
VAACHAM VARDHAYA |
Adorn your speech.
This richa sings the glory of sweet-speech and exhorts us to improve upon our oratory skills. Beautifully crafted words have the power to captivate the mind of anybody.A sweet-tongued man is loved by one and all. Audience is always attracted towards those who can speak efficiently and effectively.
PURANDHIM JANAYAA |
Develop in yourself the
capabilities to perform virtuous deeds.
If a person is constantly engaged in good actions then after sometime it becomes his habit and no amount of allurements and temptations can make him shun the virtuous path. He develops a strong character and firm belief in his convictions. Constant practice makes a man perfect and quite naturally his deeds reap rich dividends.
VACHAS PATIR MAKHASYATA VISHWA SYESHAAN OJASAH |
A radiant scholar(master)
A man is known by his deeds. A distinguished person achieves name and fame only because of his capabilities, adroitness and assiduity. People worship such noble souls because of their merits and qualities. That is why such a scholar holds a respectable and honourable position in society.
PAVITRAM TE VITATAM BRAHMANASPATE |
O Scholars! your good
deeds have disseminated everywhere.
The radiance of knowledge spreads effulgence automatically. Similarly, the greatness of virtuous deeds is also all-pervasive. The actions performed by great souls to spread,promote and disseminate knowledge to every strata of society is a great service to mankind.
DHRUVASYA SATAH KETAVAH UBHAYATAH PARIYANTI |
The fame of a scholar
who has attained 'equilibrium' and whose deeds are 'supreme' spread everywhere.
By engaging in noble deeds one attains a balanced personality. Fame follows such a man automatically. Such a person is also blessed with prosperity but with the enkindling of 'gyan jyoti', material prosperity starts loosing importance for him. Such a karma-veer earns respect in society by the virtue of his virtuous deeds, which he does with a 'nishkaam-bhav'.
DHARMANAA PAVASE |
Religion makes it pure.
A person who is pious and who follows all the ten characteristics of 'dharma' gradually becomes pure of all his imprities. Manu has said
There are 10
characteristics of 'Dharma' -
(1) Stability of mind
(6) Control of senses
(10) abstinence from anger.
VISHWACHARSHANA AA MAHI RODASI PRINA |
O Omniscient! fill the
heaven and the earth with your divine radiance.
With the advent of Sun in the horizon, the entire world gets illuminated. In this richa,'Soma' has been prayed to bless people with radiance just like the Sun i.e. bless them with knowledge as well as material prosperity.
A SHURARSHA BRIHANMATE PARI PRIYENA DHAMNA |
O intelligent Vayu! Come
to us embellished with all your qualities.
The wind is always in motion. This richa exhorts us to shun lethargy and be active just like the wind. Laziness is the root cause of failure. Human life is precious and one should just not waste it by idling away his time.
SUTA ETI PAVITRA AA TVISHIM DADHAANA OJASAA |
VICHAKSHAANE VIROCHAYAN ||
One, who by the help of
his 'knowledge',endeavours for the good of others, attains fame and makes rapid
progress by the virtue of his capabilities.
It is a self-proven fact that a person who thinks good of others and works for their welfare, his own progress is rapid and spectacular. Such people, by propagating knowledge pave the way of knowledge for one and all.
RAAJAA NAAVAN BHIDRUHAA DHRUVE SADASYUTTAME|
SAHASRASTHUNA AASHAATE |
Those kings, who do not
conspire against each other... they sit amongst their courtiers in the court of
In this richa, virtues of unity has been described.Noble people should never conspire against each other. History is testimony to the fact that kings, who did so ended up in ruins and misery. Such kings were always devoid of stability, peace and success. So, we must act in a way that strengthens unity. If all people work shoulder to shoulder without hankering for the credit for success, the society is bound to prosper and grow. People, who rise above their petty individual selfishness and work for the welfare of society are considered patriots.
DHARMANAA VAAYU MAARUHAH |
Imbibe the virtues of 'Vayu'.
The basic nature of wind is to elavate, to uplift.In the same manner,a pious hearted man always works for the benefit of others and help them to attain spiritual heights. By doing so, not only he attains moral strength but also the others. As the result of this our mind attains stability and orientation.
AYAM YATHAA NA ABHUVAT TVASHTAA RUPEVA TAKSHYA |
ASYA KRATVAA YASHASWATAH ||
Just as the carpenter
gives shape to wood, in the same way Agni (Fire) purifies us and blesses us with
success in our endeavours.
This 'richa' stresses the importance of a Guru in shaping our lives and giving right direction to us.We also learn from this shloka that anyone, who is desirous of success has got to undergo lots of sweat and toil. Success will always remain ellusive if a person is lazy and lacks firm conviction.
JYESHTHAM NAMASYATAA SAHAH |
Salutations to the men
This self-explanatory richa proclaims that the world bows down in reverence to those who are capable.A man earns respect and honour from people by his qualities. We should therefore try to improve upon ourselves by working hard so that we achieve success and also a respectable status in society. We can become successful only on the basis of our capabilities and qualities.
YATIH NA VALAM VIBHEDA |
A person of
self-restraint kills the demon 'Vala'.
There was a demon named 'Vala' whom Indra had killed. Indra was able to kill this dreaded demon only because he had attained divine powers by practicing self- restraint. A man of restraint attains unfathomable powers by means of preservation and conservation of energy. He does not waste his energy in seeking sensual pleasures. This particular richa implies to say that if one aspires to accomplish great tasks then he has got to practise self control and restraint.
One, who has his senses under control is successful in controlling the five evils-: lust, anger, greed, bondage and ego.
VAYAM SYAAMA BHUVANESHU JEEVASE |
May we live the best
life in this world.
This beautiful richa gives expressions to the eternal wish of a man- to live life in the best possible way. A life where there is happiness, peace and prosperity, where there is no sign of misery. It does'nt indicate only towards material prosperity but also towards spiritual development and growth because a man will never attain satisfaction, despite all his riches until and unless he is spiritually sound. Peace of mind happens to a man only after he has developed deep insight, only after he starts seeing the things in the right perspective.
TAVA VRATE SOMA TISHTHANTU KRISHTAYAH |
O Soma! May humans
adhere by your rules.
In this richa Somadev has been prayed that the whole of mankind adheres to His rule,that nobody commits a mistake of going against the natuaral law. Here stress has been given upon the virtues of a disciplined life. Anarchy prevails when law is transgressed. On the contrary, peace and prosperity prevails when citizens are law abiding.
SAHVAAN VISHWAA ABHI SPRITHAH |
order to attain divinity, defeats all the wicked competitors.
If one has to become successful it is imperative that he works towards removing all the hurdles and obstacles coming in his way. Here in this richa wicked competitors means anything that acts as a hindrance in the path of man's material and spiritual growth.
MEGHAA KAARAM VIDATHASYA PRASAADHANM AGNI AUM HOTAARAM PARIBHUTARAM MATIM |
We praise Agni, who
assists in accomplishing 'Yagya' and who refines our intellect... one, who
invokes the deities...the annihilator of 'enemies'...and the supreme motivator.
A real 'karma-yogi', who first acquires knowledge and then works for the welfare of people, quite naturally becomes popular and famous. There is no enemy of such a man but even if there are, he is able to vanquish them. His popularity in the society increases on account of his successes and good deeds. We should therefore first try to acquire 'knowledge' and then work for the betterment of society so that everybody gets benefited.
INDRA AGNI SHAM BHUVAA |
Indra and Agni are the
embodiments of joy.
In vedic times, there were deities, who were believed to control the different natural powers and phenomena-like Indra was the lord of 'rain' while Agni that of 'fire'. This beautiful richa praises the glory of two of the most important natural element. The importance of water and fire in the life of a man is unquestionable. For the very existence of Life both these elements i.e.water and heat, are essential.
ASI DABHARASYA CHIT VRIDHAH |
He makes the worthless,
This richa refers to Agni. It implies that by performing Yagya, even a man of ignorance can become knowledgeable. Before performing a yagya, a man must be chaste and pure. Only then he has the right to perform it. After he has gained control over his senses, the path of self-realization becomes easy to him.
ABHI VRATAANI PAVATE PUNAA NANOH |
While making endeavours
to purify his self, the 'sadhaka' practices the rigours of 'Yama' and 'Niyama'.
'Yama' and 'Niyama' are the disciplines of yoga. Our sages had devised yogic means which mede the process of self-realization relatively easy. They laid down certain disciplines which were helpful in aquiring the desired physical purity and mental state of awareness. Anybody, who is desirous of self-realization must practice restraint i.e. 'yama' and 'niyama'. Without doing this he will never be successful in surmounting the hindrances that comes in the way of self-realization.
VISHWAKARMAA VISHWA DEVO MAHAAM ASI |
Thou are great just like
A person of real understanding never considers any work inferior or below his dignity. Such a man will not hesitate to do even a menial job if a situation so demands. Whatever he does he does wholeheartedly and with passion. Thus, not only he is able to survive in any kind of situation but he also maintains his poise in such trying times.
JYOTIR YAGYASYA PAVATE MADHU PRIYAM |
The efulgence of 'yagya'
appears pleasing and mellifluous.
This richa expresses the feelings of the devotee performing 'yagya'. To him the flames of the yagya appear pleasing because of the sense of deep satisfaction arising out of performing his religious duties. Each task is a yagya and one has to perform it with the same religious fervour and enthusiasm he has while performing his religious duties. Only then success will come and when the desired goal is attained we naturally get happy and satisfaction.
AGRE VAAJASYA BHAJASE MAHADWANAM SWAA YUDHAH |
A warrior who is well
equipped for the great battle with appropriate weapons acquires wealth.
Weapons used in the battle field decides the outcome of war. If the weapons do not match the standards of the enemy then there is a fear of getting vanquished. In the same manner, a man, who is well armed for the battle of life i.e. possesses good qualities, becomes successful and prosperous. Such a man experiences the real happiness.
SANAA JYOTIH SANAA SWAR VISHWAA CHA SOMA SAUBHAGAA |
ATHAA NO VASYA SASKRIDHI ||
Bless us with radiance!
Give us happiness and good-fortune...bless us with benediction.
Here Somadev has been prayed to bless us with such capabilities that help a man to achieve success, prosperity and his own benediction. One who tries to imbibe the qualities of gods and brings them into practice, they are automatically blessed with radiance and good-fortune.
SANAA DAKSHAMUTA KRATUMAPA SOMA MRIDHO JAHI |
ATHAA NO VASYA SASKRIDHI ||
Bless us with strength
and power... Destroy our enemies and bless us with benediction.
Here in this richa once again Somadeva has been prayed for strength and power so that one could defeat the enemies. To attain success, it is necessary for a man to realize his full potentials and improve upon the areas where he finds himself lacking. Only then he will be able to destroy his enemies.
TVAM SURYE NA AA BHAJA TAV KRATVAA TAVOTIBHIH |
Keep us under the shadow
of thine valour and protection.
Here, in this richa Somadev has been prayed to keep us under his protection so that we could perform our duties without any proble.It also implies that if a man makes best use of whatever means he has at his disposal and also has the blessings of God then he will certainly fulfil all his aspirations and dreams.
USRAA DEVA VASUNAAM MARTASYA DEVYA VASAH|
The 'dawn' knows how to
The benefits of waking up early is known to all. Our sages have constantly sung the virtues of getting up in the 'brahma muhurta' when the air is fresh. One who gets up early has more time to accomplish his tasks as compared to a late riser. He is blessed with good health, beauty and sharp intellect. A person who rises early in the morning, feels energetic and remains active throughout the day. The mind remains fresh for the entire day. Therefore we should make it a habit to get up early in the morning.
TE CHITAYANTAH PARVANAA PARVANAA VAYAM |
May we contemplate upon
you in each 'parva'(dawn and dusk).
We should meditate upon the lord everyday, especially at the advent of dawn and dusk because the atmosphere is peaceful during that time. There is no noise to distract the mind. Meditation improves faith, devotion and self-confidence.
JEEVAATAVE PRATARAAM SAADHAYAA DHIYO AGNE |
Help in accomplishing
our 'Yagya' for the attainment of our long life.
Here, in this richa, Agni has been prayed for successful accomplishment of yagya and the resultant long life. It also implies that nothing can be achieved without assiduity and perseverance.
SOMAASO RAAYE AKRAMUH |
The devotee works
assiduously to attain the wealth of salvation.
Devotees are always desirous of salvation. If one is determined and honest and also willing to give his best efforts then attaining liberation is not impossible.
DHARMAN RITASYA PATHAA ASRIGRAM |
Alike 'Dharma', 'yagya'
too has a path.
A virtuous person follows the path of truth. Under no circumstances he will abandon this path and as a result of his perseverance ultimately becomes victorious. Those who owe their allegiance towards truth undoubtedly achieve their goals, sooner or later. People who are religious minded and god-fearing do not dare to tread on the wrong path. They always prefer the right path of truth and honesty.
SAKHA SAKHYURNA PRA MINAATI SANGIRAM |
Friends never hurt or
inflict pain on each other.
In this richa virtues of friendship has been described. A true friend never breaches the trust of his companion or stabs in his back. He is trustworthy and reliable. One should therefore always try to be a true and reliable friend.
RAKSHA TOKA MUTATMANAA |
Protect your children
with your own efforts.
Every person should take care of all those people who have taken his refuge just like Agnidev, who by His selfless service helps mankind
SATRAAJIT AGOHYAH VISHWATAH PRITHU |
Thou are the vanquisher
of enemies, irrepressible and mightiest.
Here,in this richa Indra has been praised for his exceptional self-control. It also exhorts us to emulate this quality of Indra so that we can get rid of our demerits and achieve greatness. This richa implies that unless and until a man does not stop wasting his energy in seeking sensual pleasures, he will not be able to achieve anything substantial.
EVA SURYAM AROCHAYAT PAVAMAANO ADHI DYAVI |
A 'sadhaka' after having
purified himself, illuminates the 'Sun of knowledge' in the 'heaven of mind'.
A sadhka can attain the spiritual goals only if his mind is illuminated with the divine knowledge. When this happens there is no fear of him going astray. He makes rapid progress on the path of spiritualism- the path well illuminated by his divine knowledge. One should therefore try to acquire knowledge from an able 'guru'.
PAAVMAANIRYO ADHYETYA RISHIBHIH SAMBHRITAM RASAM |
TASMAI SARASWATI DUHE KSHEERAM SAPIRMADHUDAKAM ||
Those, who study the
knowledge accumulated by sages, 'Saraswati' blesses them with milk, ghee, honey
Knowledge can bestow us with proper intellect required for our very survival. This clearly means that it is vital even for our existence. We should therefore try to give proper nourishments to our minds so that it remains healthy, alert and sharp. This richa mentions the name of few such nourishing foodstuffs- milk, ghee, honey and even water.
PAAPA MAANIH SWASTYAYA NISTAABHIR GACHCHATI NAANDANAM |
PUNYAAM SHVA BHAKSHAAN BHAKSHAYATYA AMRITATVAM CHA GACHCHHATI ||
May humans enjoy bliss
by the blessings of the 'purifying and benedictory' richas. He eats pure food
and attains immortality.
Those who imbibe the knowledge of the Vedas and bring them into practice, they enjoy prosperity and happiness.
HEY KAVEY ! TANU- NA- PAAT |
O Agni, thou prevent the
body from getting destroyed.
The body temperature is a necessary element required for survival. Heat is the essential characteristic of fire. The 'fire' present in our body helps in keeping us alive. Therefore, to maintain the required body-temperature, it is important that we nourish our body with nutritious food.
KAARINEY NA, DHANAM PRA YANSAT |
Just as the performer of
'yagya' is blessed with prosperity ,May we too be blessed in the same manner.
The fruits of good actions are always good where as evil deeds always yield bad results. One should therefore try to take inspiration from great people and engage oneself in auspicious deeds.
VYAKHYAN MAHISHO DIVAM |
The great 'Surya'
illuminates the heaven.
In this richa Surya has been eulogised. The world owes its survival to Sun. There would have been no life if Sun were not there. Knowledge can be compared with Sun because both destroy darkness. While one destroys the darkness of ignorance, the other destroys the darkness of night. Just as the Sun illuminates the whole world, men of learning too do the same by propagating knowledge. Therefore, we should take inspiration from the sun and work constantly for the benefit of mankind, so that peace and prosperity prevails everywhere.
RAAJAA RITEN VIVAVRIDHE |
The king, by following
the path of 'truth', gets benefitted in a special way.
A king, who adheres to the path of righteousness and truth, naturally becomes famous and immortal.People have high regards for a ruler who is truthful, just and kind. Peace and prosperity prevails in his kingdom.
URU-GAVYUTIH ABHAYAANI KRINVAM |
One, whose path is all
encompassing, protects us.
The deity, Vayu has been eulogised in this richa. Air is present everywhere and we owe our survival to it. No life would have been possible in the absence of this most vital natural element.
ASMAAN AVANTU TE DHIYAH |
May your intellect
The aquisition of 'knowledge' depends upon the capacity of the mind to understand, which once again depends upon the intelligence. Quite obviously the capacity to imbibe knowledge depends upon one's intelligence.
Here, in this richa, Indra has been invoked to protect us by His supreme intellect. Knowledge definitely protects us because it gives us the intelligence to understand the nature of the problems and then find proper solutions to them. Therefore, we should always endeavour to enhance our intelligence.
BHUYAASA TE SUMATAU VAAJINO VAYAM |
May we be receptive to
your supreme intelligence and become strong.
In this richa, Indra's blessings have been sought so that we follow His path and enhance our capabilities. Here, the stress is upon the acquisition of right knowledge and then bringing them into practice. One, who does definitely achieves success in his life.
MAA NA STARA BHIMAATAYE |
Never allow us to fall
prey to our pride.
We should guard ourselves against pride because pride leads to downfall. Pride of wealth destroys wealth, pride of strength destroys strength and in the same manner pride of knowledge destroys knowledge. One should never be proud because "Pride hath a fall".
TVAMAM HI SHOORAH SANITAA CHODAYO MANUSHO RATHAM |
Thou are brave and
benevolent. Enthuse 'desires' in humans.
Here, in this richa, Indra has been requested to fulfill the supreme desires in man. Inspiration acts as a catalyst for success. Encouragement received from superior human beings boost's the morale of a man and inspires him to give his best. Success then comes naturally to him. In the absence of outside inspiration, a man should engage himself in self-study and introspection and try to enkindle the flame of knowledge by his own efforts.
SAHAAVAAN DASYUM AVRATA MOSHAH PAATRAM NA SHOCHISHAA |
Just like Agnidev, who
incinerates everything by His capability, in the same manner burn(destroy) the
wicked and the ignorant ones.
In this richa, Indra has been requested to destroy wicked and ignorant people by emulating Agnidev, who burns things by his power. Those who are not assiduous, who are engaged in wrong deeds and who do not observe austerities inevitably end up in misery.
Therefore, we should observe austerities and avoid bad deeds.
MANASH CHINMANA SANSPATIH |
Realise the potential of
the mind and then rule it.
A man who realizes the potential of his mind by means of introspection and contemplation, he does not lack self-confidence. He has control over his mind and he is able to realize its full potential. Therefore, anybody desirous of success should spend some time in introspection and contemplation.
STOMYAA BHUT |
Saraswati,the goddess of
knowledge is worthy of eulogisation.
Anybody desirous of knowledge should seek the blessings of Goddess Saraswati. Worshipping Saraswati does not only mean ritualistic worship of Her idol but making constant eforts for the enhancement of one's knowledge. This is the real worship of Saraswati, where a devotee endeavours to enhances his knowledge. Therefore, we should always keep making efforts to enhance our knowledge.
TATSA VITUR VARENYAM BHARGO DEVASYA DHEEMAHI |
DHIYO YO NAH PRACHODAYAAT ||
Savitadev, who inspires
our intelligence, may we contemplate upon His radiant form.
Great people give inspiration by their deeds. They lead by examples. Common people always emulate them. Savitadev, is the supreme motivator because He drives away the darkness of night. Light symbolizes everything that is auspicious. It symbolizes hopes and aspirations of a man. The darkness symbolizes pessimism and fears. Here, in this richa, Savitadev-the eternal source of energy and light- has been eulogised in glowing terms and rightly so.
KETUM KRINVANNA KETAVE PESHO MARYAA APESHASE |
SAMUSH ABHDIR JAAYATHAH ||
O Men! giving knowledge
to ignorants, and forms to the formless thus rises the Sun after dawn.
Once again Suryadev has been eulogised in this richa. Suryadev has been captivating the imaginations of human-mind since time immemorial.At the break of dawn, when the Sun rises it fills the hearts of human beings with enthusiasm and hope. The life exists only because of Sun. No wonder Suryadev has been eulogised in such glowing terms so often in the Vedas.
HOTA DEVO AMARTYAH PURASTAADETI MAAYAYAA |
VIDATHAANI PRACHODAYAN ||
Agnidev, after having
ignited the 'havan' and then inspiring us to perform the 'rituals', keeps on
moving upwards efficiently.
This beautiful richa inspires us to think positively and work incessantly like Agnidev. The movement of the fire is always upwards-the flames always rise up. The vedic man had observed this natural quality of fire and took inspiration from it. Just as the flames of fire always move up, in the same manner, we should always have high ideals and work constantly towards their fulfillment. We should always engage ourselves in virtuous deeds so that success and prosperity comes naturally to us.
SA EE MAMAADA MAHI KARMA KARTAVE MAHAAMURUM SAINAM |
Great, brilliant and men
of capabilities inspire us.
Only those, who work hard can think of achieving something. Sitting idle or hoping for results without making any effort is nothing but foolishness. All great people have worked hard for their success. Success demands sweat and tears. This richa exhorts us to take inspirations from them and work hard so that success becomes possible.
SADYO DAASHUSHE KSHARASI |
The 'donor' sees the
immediate fruits of his benevolent deeds.
The 'giver' always gets a deep sense of satisfaction and happiness after giving. The good deeds fetch good results. The virtues of donations are great because it helps the needy and at the same time it gives an opportunity to the donor to give the surplus to the people in need. It helps the needy to sustain himself. This richa sings the glory of 'charity'. One, who gives in charity always gets happiness and sense of self-satisfaction. Donation, is the greatest form of virtue, and we should not miss any opportunity to earn this virtue. The Lord also blesses them who do charity.
DADHAATI RATNAM VIDHATE SUVEERYA MANNIRJANAAYA DAASHUSHE |
Agnidev blesses the
'donor' and the performer of 'yagya-karma' with 'wealth of reputation'.
In this richa, the virtues of performing 'yagya' and making donations have been described. One,who engages himself in Yagya karma and make donations related with it, surely earns name and fame in the society. By fulfilling his religious obligations, he also attains the ultimate goal of life i.e. 'moksha'.
DADHAJ JYOTIR JANEBHYAH |
Bless people with the
This beautiful richa shows the respect the vedic man had for 'Agni' and 'Surya'-the two prominent vedic deities. Both 'Agni' and 'Surya' are eternal sources of energy. Apart from being crucial for the existence of human life, they were eulogised because they destroyed darkness and fears associated with it. This richa exhorts us to take inspiration from 'Surya' and 'Agni'and work selflessly like them.
PAAHI VISHWASMAA DRAKSHASO AARAVNAH |
O Agni ! Protect us from
people of diabolic tendencies and miserliness.
Here, Agnidev has been prayed that He never allows our inherrent diabolic tendencies to raise their ugly heads.The person who is basically evil by nature will always be averse to virtuous deeds. He is always engaged in bad karma. So, in this richa prayer has been made to Agni that He protects us from all these evil tendencies present within us. We should therefore act in such a way that gives opportunity to our virtuous tendencies to blossom.
CHIKIDVI BHAATI BHAASAA BRIHATAA |
A scholar by his
effulgence of knowledge, shines everywhere.
The light of knowledge never extinguishes. It keeps on shedding light forever. This implies that knowledge by means of propagation, continues to flourish. Therefore, we should acquire knowledge from men of learnings and then pass it on to others. Thus,the flames of knowledge keeps on burning for generations.
SAH TIGMA JAMBHA RAKSHASO DAHA PRATI |
O Agni ! May you destroy
all the diabolic forces one by one.
In this richa, the all-capable Agni has once again been prayed that He vanquishes all the evil-forces and sinful-tendencies so that nothing but virtuosity prevails everywhere. Here, reference has been made both to the exterior as well as inherrent evil tendencies present in a man.
MAA BHEM MAA SHRAMISHMO GRASYA SAKHYE TAV|
Having taken your
refuge,May we neither fear nor get tired.
Here, in this richa the friedship and favours of Indra has been sought. One, who is under the protection of Indra needs not fear. It means to say that one,who has taken refuge of the Lord, becomes free from all his fears. Total faith and devotion in the lord enthuses him with tremendous self-confidence. He fearlessly treads on the path of truth and righteousness.
UTO KRIPANT DHEETAYO DEVAANAAM NAAMA VIBHRATIH |
A scholar's fingers, by
being constantly engaged in activities,acquire immense capabilities.
This richa stresses the importance of physical labour because all the developments and progress are dependent on it . An idea, however innovative it might be, is useless unless and until it is implemented. For it's implementation, we have to act.A truly knowledgeable person never idle away his time.
MAA NO AGNE MAHAADHANE PARAA VARARBHAARA BHRIDDYATHAA |
SAMVARGA SAM RAYIM JAY ||
O Agni ! May thou not
keep us away from 'battle'. Just as a labourer lifts loads!May thou prsented us
the accumulated wealth, in the same way.
This richa exhorts us to take inspiration from a labourer and work hard so that Agnidev blesses us with wealth and prosperity. Here, battle means the struggles and strifes of life which one faces daily. Anybody aspiring for success has to fight them and find solutiuons to them. Just running away from them is not going to be of any help.
VISHNOH KARMAANI PASHYAT YATO VRATAANI PASPASHE |
O Men! Look at the
divine deeds of Vishnu; contemplate and then follow them.
This richa exhorts us to take inspirations from Lord Vishnu's divine deeds and act accordingly. This richa means to say,that we should imbibe the good qualities of great people and then bring them into practice. By doing so we can achieve success in all our pursuits.
RITASYA PATHYA ANU |
A 'Gyani' treads on the
path of truth.
One, who has the 'light of knowledge' enkindled in his heart, will always follow the path of truth and will under no circumstances go astray.
SO AGNIRYO VASUH|
Agni helps all to settle
Only he,who knows the art of living can achieve success and prosperity. His belief in his convictions are total and he does not succumb to evil temptations even in the most trying situations and adversities. He continues to follow the virtuous path and ultimately achieve success in his life. Such a man can aptly be considered as a person knowing the art of living. The mettle of a man is tested in adversities and he, who remains firm in his beliefs comes out shining.
PRETAA JAYATAA NARA |
O men! move ahead and be
We should constantly make endeavours to overcome the struggles of life. Shying away from problems or running away from them will not provide us solutions. We have to face the problems with courage and patience. Only then we will achieve success.